Athletes who have no healthy and varied food, vitamin and mineral supplements required. Vitamin and mineral supplements can not directly increase the sport performance. They can shorten the recovery period between workouts by.

When you swallow food supplements anyway, then it's good to know, that:

  • The operation depends on the dosage and the duration.
  • The recording never 100%. So is the inclusion of L-carnitinesupplement 15-20%. That is, when you 300 mg L-carnitine swallows, then the body has only 45-60 mg included. The manufacturer is not required to mention how much of a food supplement is included in the body eventually.
  • Dietary supplements are not always doping free. Doping free nutritional supplements on this website.
  • Vitamins and minerals increase the sports performance not directly but indirectly. Swallowing vitamins and minerals can shorten the recovery period.
  • The operation is found when a positive conclusion is really pás in an overview article of randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind human studies or when the claim has been approved by EFSA.
  • NOC * NSF has approved the operation of a number of nutritional supplements.

Swallow while exercising no supplements. They affect the sport performance.

It has been scientifically proven that water, sugar, creatine and caffeine intake during exercise increase the sport performance.

Power supply with less than 55% carbohydrates And 20% fat and/or less has adverse impact on the sport performance.

At a low-carbohydrate diet ( 5 grams of carbohydrate per kg of body weight) can take up to 2-3 days after exercising the glycogen supply is again at the previous level.

Building up the glycogen and creatine inventory:
Get athletes during exercise mainly energy from carbohydrates that are stored as glycogen in the body. For the sport that needs lots of energy in a very short time, is creatine also an important energy supplier. Therefore, it is recommended that you briefly a competition the glycogen and creatine to build inventory.

Build up the glycogen supply is done via the tape ring off method of 3 days for a competition. The carbohydrate intake during this 3 days is 7-10 grams of carbohydrate per kg of body weight per day.

Refurbishment of the creatine inventory in the body is done in 2 phases: the load and maintenance phase. Creatine can best be taken with carbohydrates. The 2 ways to creatine to build inventory are:

  1. 0.3 grams of creatine per kilogram body weight per day (5-7 grams of creatine per times with an interval of 3-4 hours) and that 3-7 days long. After 3-5 grams of creatine per day for 4-10 weeks long.
  2. 2-3 grams of creatine per day and that 30 days long.

The glycogen resynthesis (supplementing the glycogen supply weather after exercise) is the fastest within 30-60 minutes after exercise. The rate of glycogen resynthesis reaches its maximum at 0.8 grams of carbohydrate per kg body weight per hour.

During 24-48 hours after exercise the muscle and bone growth takes place.

It is a misconception that isotonic sports drink is absorbed faster than hypotonic sports drinks. The sugar content and the type of sugar turn out of essential significance.

Rehydration drinks serve a mOsm/l from bottom to have 500 osmolality, preferably below 300 and a sugar content of 40-80 grams per litre. Rehydration is replenishing moisture during a physical effort.

Isotonic sports drink has an osmolality of around 300 mOsm/l and a sugar content of 40-80 grams per litre. During exercise is the preferred isotonic sports drink and is hypertonic sports drink (> 80 grams of sugar per liter) discouraged. The osmolality of our blood is about 275-300 mOsm/l.

Sports drinks with 40-80 grams of carbohydrates and 280-660 mg sodium per litre is the fastest in the body. This is the ideal isotonic sports drink. Sports drink is recommended for the moderate sports longer than 60-90 minutes.

A sports drink or thirst quencher contains 40-80 grams of sugar per liter. A sports energy drink contains more than 80 grams of sugar per liter. It contains sugar also often caffeine, taurine and carbon dioxide.

There is internationally recommended to 250 ml fluid per 15 minutes during exercise (or 1000 ml of fluid per hour) in order to prevent dehydration, but also in order to be able to keep the sport performance. Furthermore, it is a scientific fact that the body up to 60 grams of carbohydrates per hour can break down to there, to get energy for exercise.

If you are energetic, during exercise means that you have eaten enough carbohydrates.

It is best between 2 and 4 hours before exercise to eat.

PAP in the legs indicates exhaustion of the glycogen.

The daily protein requirements of an athlete can be calculated as follows:
Daily protein requirements = fat free mass (FFM) x 2.75.

The resting metabolism (RMR) of an athlete can be calculated as follows:
RMR (Kcal/d) = (11.797 x weight in kg) + (6.487 x height in cm)-(5.180 x age) + (186.017 x gender (male = 1, female = 0))-139.444.

The common nutrient deficiencies among athletes are calcium, vitamin D and iron deficiency (often among female athletes).

How does the energy distribution during exercise look like?

Energy Distribution

Dietary advice when playing sports:

  • The last meal must have 2-4 hours for the sports are enjoyed.
  • Professional athletes are advised to choose products with at least 55 And 60-70% (and%) carbohydrates, And by 20-30% fat for products and for products with 15-25 and% protein or a daily diet with:

    15-25 and 20-30% protein, And fat, up to 10% And% saturated fat, up to 0.5 grams of sodium per 100 grams (100 ml), And a minimum of 25% simple sugars, at least 1.3 grams of fiber per 100 kcal and 60-70 and% (minimum 55 and%) carbohydrates.
  • Swallow dietary supplements only under expert guidance!
  • 0.5 mg vitamin B1 per 1000 kcal.
  • 0.6 mg vitamin B2 per 1000 kcal.
  • 0.02 milligrams of vitamin B6 per gram of protein consumed.
  • The recommended daily dose is 6 mg magnesium per kg body weight.
  • The recommended daily dose is 5-7 grams of carbohydrate per kg of body weight per day and koolhyrdaten 8-10 grams per kg of body weight during the tape ring-off period.
  • The recommended daily amount of protein for athletes is 1.2-1.8 grams per kg of body weight and for strength athletes is that 1.5 grams per kg of body weight during the maintenance phase and 2.0 grams per kg of body weight during the construction phase.
  • The rest metabolism can be calculated with the following formula:
    Resting metabolism (kcal/d) = (11.797 x weight in kg) + (6.487 x height in cm) – (5.180 x age) + (186.017 x gender) – 139.444.
    Sex should be completed at a 1 in men and in women a 0.

For the sports:

  • Drink the last 2 hours before the match 500-1000 ml moisture.
  • 5-30 minutes before exercise take 50 grams of carbohydrates.
  • Take 10 grams of protein right before exercising at because it promotes the recovery of the muscle damage.
  • Drink the last 3-5 minutes for the effort 150-300 ml water or thirst-quencher. This is called prehydration.

During exercise:

  • Take while exercising no more than 35 grams of fructose per litre because fructose is slowly taken up and therefore gastrointestinal complaints.
  • Drinking while exercising 125-250 ml of fluid per quarter.
  • Choose during exercise for a sports drink with an osmolality around 300 mOsm/l or below 500.
  • Avoid hypertonic sports drinks during exercise.
  • Drinking water during exercise, isotonic or hypotonic sports drinks. Isotonic sports drink has an osmolality of around 300 mOsm/l and a sugar content of 40-80 grams per litre. Hypotonic sports drinks has a sugar content of less than 40 grams per liter.
  • The optimal sports drink during sports is a sports drink with 6 g of sugar per 100 ml.
  • Drinking while exercising no coffee because coffee works vochtdrijvend allowing you to go to the toilet more often and thus lose a lot of moisture.

After exercise:

  • After exercise, there are 2 ways to replenish the glycogen supply:
    1. The first way: take directly (within 30 minutes) after exercise 1.2 grams of carbohydrates (preferably quickly absorbable sugars, such as glucose) per kg body weight. Repeat this every hour for 4-6 hours.
    2. The two way: 0.8 grams of carbohydrate per kg body weight + 0.4 grams of protein or amino acids per kg body weight per hour. Repeat this every hour for 4-6 hours.
  • It is recommended that after the effort 1.5 times the amount of water that is lost during the effort to complete.
  • Weighing you before and after exercise. Is your weight loss exceeding 1 kg then you have while exercising too little drunk. Each kg weight loss after exercise is equivalent to 1 liter of water. Moisture loss and-supplement is per sport different. Please consult a sports dietitian!
  • Take 10 grams of protein within 30 minutes after an intensive strength training in because it promotes the recovery of the muscle damage.

Handy websites for topspporters:

  • Sports supplements (doping free nutritional supplements for elite athletes)
  • NOCNSF (Knowledge Centre for elite athletes)

Below you will find scientific investigations to sports nutrition.

The review articles of randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind human studies (Rcts) answer the following question:
"Is swallowing food supplements make sense?". Yes at a positive conclusion and no in the case of a negative conclusion.

The review articles of cohort studies or case-control studies answer the following question:
"Should I change my diet?".


  1. Lycopeensupplementen relieve possible oxidative stress
  2. 500-2000 mg of vitamin C lowers possible exercise-induced asthma
  3. 200 mg of vitamin C per day lowers the chance of a cold in athletes


  1. A high physical activity level lowers possible asthma
  2. 200-1000 mg of vitamin C per day reduces the oxidative stress
  3. Better studies are needed to the functioning of sports products
  4. 0.1 gram of creatine per kg bodyweight plus strength training improves training adjustments at the cellular and sub cellular level
  5. The effect of energy drinks on quality of life and well-being is ambiguous